Effect of industrialization on allergic diseases in school children
Ahmet Ozdemir1, Demet Can1, Ilker Gunay1, Tekin Nacaroglu1, Canan Sule Karkiner1, Ala Ustyol1, Hacer Kamali1, Muge Ayanoglu1, Turkan Gunay2, Done Dogan1
1Dr. Behcet Uz Children’s Hospital Department of Pediatric Allergy, Izmir, Turkey
2Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health, Izmir, Turkey
Aim: The lifestyle and environmental changes associated with industrialization and urbanization are crucial factors in determining the prevalence of allergic diseases.
Material and Methods: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma and other allergic disorders in an industrial town.Study Design: Prospective, Cross-sectional study. This cross-sectional population-based study was conducted in Kemalpasa, İzmir, Turkey, which is an industrial town. Using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC), the questionnaire was carried out on 1511 school-children aged between 13-14 years living in the district center.
Results: The ISAAC Phase One questionnaire was answered by 1373 (90.87%) students. Six hundred ninety two (50.5%) of the children were girls and 681 (49.5%) were boys. The frequency of ever wheezing was 34%,that of current wheezing was 31.1% and that of physician-diagnosed asthma was 4.1%. The frequency of ever rhinitis was 36.6%, current rhinitis was 31.3%, current allergic rhino-conjunctivitis was 22.1% and physician-diagnosed allergic rhinitis was 11.1%. The frequency of ever eczema was 11.3% and that of physician-diagnosed eczema was 3.6%.
Conclusion: The prevalence of asthma was found to be significantly higher, although there was no significant difference in allergic rhinitis and eczema compared with non-industrial neighboring states. The incidence of asthma was higher than other provinces which may be explained by the risk factors associated with this industrialized area. The fact that only children of the same age group and residence were evaluated contributed to the epidemiological value of our study.