The clinical outcomes of intravitreal dexamethasone implant as the first-line treatment in retinal vein occlusion related macular edema
Erzincan Binali Yıldırım University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Erzincan, Turkey
Aim: To investigate the alterations in central macular thickness (CMT), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and intraocular pressure (IOP) after intravitreal dexamethasone implant (IDI; Ozurdex) injections in patients with treatment-naive central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO)-related macular edema in clinical practice.
Material and Methods: Totally 41 eyes of 41 patients diagnosed with BRVO or CRVO, who were treatment-naive and treated with only intravitreal dexamethasone implants, were retrospectively investigated. Anterior and posterior segment examinations were performed with a slit lamp bio-microscope. BCVA was assessed using Snellen chart and then converted to logarithm of minimum angle of resolution (log MAR) units before statistical analysis and CMT measurements were performed with spectral domain optical coherence tomography.
Results: The mean age of patients was 65.95 ±6.164 years (range: 51-78). Central retinal vein was occluded in 14 patients while branches were occluded in remaining 27 patients. The patients were followed for 14.93±1.942 months (median: 15, range: 12-20 months). The mean number of injections was 2.83±0.803 (median: 3, range: 1-4). BCVA was significantly better in all time periods after treatment (p: 0.001). There was a significant decrease in CMT in all time periods after treatment compared with pre-treatment values (p: 0.001). During follow-up period, IOP was determined to be higher than 25 mm-Hg in 5 patients, and cataract was diagnosed in 6 patients.
Conclusion: Intravitreal dexamethasone injection is an effective mode of treatment in patients with RVO-associated macular edema. Its side effects are not severe or common. However the patients should be kept under follow-up for recurrences.